Sunday, May 24, 2020
The Arab academy for science and technology International business 12th week project Done to: Dr. Taha Kassem Table of contents STARBUCKS history------------------------------------------------------------2 STARBUCKS culture------------------------------------------------------------3 Economic and political IDEOLOGIEIS---------------------------------------4 Modes of entry--------------------------------------------------------------------5 STARBUCKS strategy-----------------------------------------------------------6 STARBUCKS strategy----------------------------------------------------------7 References-------------------------------------------------------------------------8 About Starbucks | 1970Ã¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ ¨TheÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ideologies * Economic/Social Economic factors are an important aspects that concern the nature and Direction of the economy in which a firm operates. One of the main reasons Starbucks is so successful in the flattening global economy is because they focus on quality and experience rather than the price. Starbucks is committed to helping support thriving neighborhoods wherever we do business. Being an integral part of neighborhoods is not just the right thing to do for the community, itÃ¢â¬â¢s also good for our business. For example Starbucks Egypt partners took part in the Ã¢â¬Å"Support Terry Fox Run for Cancer ResearchÃ¢â¬ Marathon, to raise funds for the 57357 ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Cancer Center. Starbucks also donated merchandise to be used in the raffle draw and offered participants food and refreshments. The 57357 greatly appreciated Starbucks donation and participation in this important cause. To amplify our community efforts, Starbucks collaborate with like-minded nonprofit organizations, businesses, civic leaders and individuals. They also engage millions of people in di alogue about local and global issues. * Political Increasing tensions between the United States and the rest of the world, the business environment, especially in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, was becoming increasingly volatile. After U.S. declaration of war on Iraq in early 2003 matters became worse for the company.Show MoreRelatedEssay on Starbucks Marketing Plan1006 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMarketing Plan Project Starbucks MKTG 3175 Gay Fortson Sharita Garmon Robin Hardy- Green Table of Contents Executive SummaryÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..3 History and BackgroundÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Read MoreInternational Marketing of Starbucks1184 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesStarbucks International Marketing International marketing has become more significant on business world because it lets the companies to be able to extend their markets to increase profits. Hence, International marketing is the business activity including goods, services, and resources which occurs between two or more regions and countries. International entry strategy Entry to new markets in many countries is key factor that makes a firm be able to expand its business and target market to furtherRead MoreMgt 498 Week 3 Environmental Scan Paper1112 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesenvironmental scan were conducted for the two following companies Starbucks, and Cocoa Cola. With the environmental scanning it will increase their chances and distribute their resources in the expectation of the constant changes within the environment. Starbucks was originated in 1971 in Seattle Washington on Pikes Place Market. Starbucks is a specialized whole bean, ground coffee, and tea business/distribution. Over the course of their years Starbucks until this present day builds relationships with millionsRead MoreMgt 498 Week 3 Environmental Scan Paper1099 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesscan were conducted for the two following companies Starbucks, and Cocoa Cola. With the environmental scanning it will increase their chances and distribute their resources in the expectation of the constant changes within the environment. Starbucks was originated in 1971 in Seattle Washington on Pikes Place Market. Starbucks is a specialized whole bean, ground coffee, and tea business/distribution. Over the course of their years Starbucks until this present day builds relationships with millionsRead MoreCompetitive Strategic Approaches used by Starbuck Essay1151 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesStarbucks Case Each company has what sets it apart from other companies in the same industry. This ideology excludes not Starbuck. Starbuck has a history and right from its inception, the founders wanted something that would offer fine coffee to the society that settled in Seattle. This has all along been the case. To accentuate this phenomenon, there was a time Howard Schultz had to travel to Italy to explore more of the Italian coffee tastes offered in Italy coffee bars and come back to customizeRead MoreThe Marketing Plan For Starbucks Corporation1285 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn 2014, they even hosted Partner Open Forums, in which they discussed race relations in America. (Starbucks Corporation) The Starbucks Company started off as one single store. But as of June 28, 2015, their total number of stores across the world amount to 22,519. (Starbucks Corporation) In date order, they have opened stores in all of these countries: 1971 Ã¢â¬â United States, 1987 Ã¢â¬â Canada, 1996 Ã¢â¬â Japan, 1997 Ã¢â¬â Philippines, 1998 Ã¢â¬â England, Malaysia, New Zealand, Taiwan, Thailand, 1999 Ã¢â¬â China, KuwaitRead MorePolitical And Legal Forces : Starbucks1625 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesconduction exchange (Hill. E SullivanÃ¢â¬â¢O. T, 1999:62). Starbucks works in a pleasant environment on the grounds that the political relationship between United States and United Kingdom are truly smooth. But Starbucks should also do some research about the country they want to expand their business in. According to (Dudovskiy, 2012) certain nations with political/common turmoil (for instance: Middle Eastern nations, for example, Bahrain, Egypt, Libya, and so forth.) ought to be considere d with greatRead MoreStarbucks Brand Inventory1657 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesinventory History The first Starbucks opened in Seattle on March 30, 1971 by three partners: Jerry Baldwin (English teacher), Zev Siegl (history teacher), and Gordon Bowker (writer). The three were inspired by entrepreneur Alfred Peet (whom they knew personally) to sell high-quality coffee beans and equipment. The name, inspired by Moby Dick, evoked the romance of the high seas and the seafaring tradition of the early coffee traders. From 1971Ã¢â¬â1975, the first Starbucks was at 2000 Western Avenue;Read Moremr. Davis solman1300 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages140 countries and with revenues of nearly half a billion dollars.Ã The Challenges The challenge now for Andrea Illy, the third generation CEO who is a chemist by trade, is to continueÃ that expansion amid increased competition from the likes of Starbuck and Nespresso, and an inherently limited supply of high quality raw material, while maintaining the luxury soul of his product. Reason for changing from supply chain to direct supply a. Higher quality bean(coffee) b. Fair Trade In the 1990s theyRead MoreCoffee Drinking Is A Universal Drink For All Ages1170 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestheir daily fix, such as Starbucks. With hundreds of ways to take your coffee, it has became a universal drink for all ages. For some, it is almost impossible to get through a day without it. The history, businesses, and consumers involved with coffee are the reason caffeinated beverages are such a commonality among the world today. The Arabian Peninsula is where the cultivation of coffee began in the 15th century. Later on in the 16th century, it spread to Persia, Syria, Egypt, and Turkey, where it
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Guantanamo Bay in Cuba houses some of the most dangerous people. The people being held have ranged in committing various crimes. What makes Guantanamo Bay well known is how the time period a detainee has spent in prison without a trial. While in prison for an extensive period of time, a detainee is bound to receive discipline for not following the guards. There are often a variety of different methods that the guards use to teach discipline to the detainees. All who follow Guantanamo Bay as institution often criticizes the measures taken. What makes Guantanamo Bay an ironic place to start this journey is because Guantanamo Bay is at the center of attention to a very important, controversial law passed in 2006. The controversial law wasÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦By passing the Military Commissions Act of 2006, the person in control of all decisions would be the President. Ã¢â¬Å" They also gave the president absolute power to designate enemy combatants, and to set his own definiti ons for tortureÃ¢â¬ (Military Commissions). If someone were to identify the players who were deemed responsible for this act to pass, that someone would most likely identify President Bush and Congress. These central figures wanted to take the extra step in keeping the United States protected from any additional acts of terrorism. With what is stated in the Military Commissions Act of 2006 and those who stressed for the passage of the act, mixed messages are sent. President Bush, at the time, believed in less harm and more protection for the United States due to the extenuating circumstances. By creating a law that gives the President absolute authority and leaving no room for improvement, how was the United States going to look like? What it going to be looked at as a weak country with no control of power? The other player involved, Congress, was weak on its part. By allowing this act to pass with authority give to the President, this law was interpreted as unconstitutional and violated the rights of the judicial branch and ultimately the supreme law of the land, The Constitution. How the judicial branch got involved in this matter was based upon its given rights ofShow MoreRelatedInhuman Enhanced Interrogation Techniques1564 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestorturing someone without leaving a mark. These techniques include Ã¢â¬Å"waterboardingÃ¢â¬ , submersion in water or dousing to produce the sensation of drowning, and denying food, water or sleep for days or weeks on end. The techniques used by the CIA and military in the wake of 2001 involved stress positions, strikes, sensory and sleep deprivation. These Enhanced Interrogation Techniques have been compared to torture and torture lite. While strikes, stress positions, and deprivation leave no lasting marksRead MoreHow Should We Treat Non American Prisoners1274 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHow Should We Treat Non-American Prisoners in American Prisons Casie Alaniz Ashford University Professor Beth Garcia POL: 201 American National Government How Should We Treat Non-American Prisoners in American Prisons How Should We Treat Non-American Prisoners in American Prisons The war on terror has changed how our country sees many things from travel, privacy rights, security levels and a personÃ¢â¬â¢s right to due process. The rights of accused terrorists have been stripped due to the need for intelligenceRead MoreGuantanamo Bay And The War Of Terror1756 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesissues have risen because of this detention facility. The detainees held at the facility have to and had to face many challenges. The government took away their human rights and treats these detainees very harshly. Currently, there are still detainees held at GuantÃ ¡namo bay. However, some actions have occurred to stop these inhumane actions, but there have not been enough to close the facility down. Interrogation Techniques Detainees held at Guantanamo bay are all interrogated and later classifiedRead MoreGuantanamo Bay At The Southeastern Tip Of Cuba2299 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesestablish a detention facility in a secure and isolated location eliminating any chance the detainees could escape and return back to their countries. In addition, Guantanamo Bay allowed the U.S. to avoid bringing those individuals suspected of terrorism from entering domestic soil. As of today, Guantanamo Bay only holds 80 detainees. Since the attack on the World Trade Center, the US has been holding detainees without trial and there have been reports of torture being used. This is not only unconstitutionalRead MoreReweneable Essay1236 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHabeas Corpus Monica Cruz Ashford University POL 201 Jamie Way May 5, 2013 Our country has certain laws that protect both civilians and prisoners. This law was given a name as Habeas Corpus Act. Habeas Corpus comes from the word Latin which means Ã¢â¬Å"May you have the bodyÃ¢â¬ stated in the (Encyclopedia.gov). This law Habeas Corpus states that an accused must be brought before a judge and there must be sufficient evidence and reason of why the accused is being sent to jail.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(36) " involved in travel and mobility 3\." Abstract Now these days the Smartphone industry along with the other sectors the one main thing is the competitiveness that declares the successfulness or failure in the global market place. As in the case of the Smartphone industry being competitive means that the industry can be able to offer a product of higher quality compared to its rivals, but at the same time, with a similar price. The Smartphone industry has achieved (reached) this competitiveness mainly because of its vertical integrated production chain. We will write a custom essay sample on Analysis of the competitiveness of the Smartphone industry in Taiwan or any similar topic only for you Order Now This specific coordination, besides reducing transaction costs, push toward a production of excellent quality, which can be immediately adjusted according to the consumer demand. Keywords: Competitiveness, Smartphone Industry 1 Introduction Recently, there have been many articles written about the Smartphone industry and this attention is because of/due to the fact that such a small country could have such a large production.Smartphones most definitely will become the information center as well as the device most everyone in public choose to own for entertainment. An increase in acceptance as well the prevalent usage of smartphoneÃ¢â¬â¢s is not only a good sign for the makers of smart phones, but as well as the entire wireless industry. In 2011, recently, a market research firm mentioned the fact that worldwide, the smartphone market would nearly grow by as much as 50% and the leading operating system would be taken over by GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s Android. According to International Data Corporation (IDC), in 2011 more than 450 million smart phones compared to last yearÃ¢â¬â¢s 303.4 million smart phones were shipped by vendors of smart phones. IDC also said that the smart phone market will grow greater than four times quicker compared to the overall mobile phone market as consumers as well as enterprise usersÃ¢â¬â¢ upgrade from their basic handsets to smart phones that have many advanced capabilities. The research firm also believes in 2011, the Android likely will surpass NokiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Symbian and will take over in becoming the most smart phone platform that leads the market. 2 Methodology The various methods used in order to carry out a thorough analysis of the competitive environment comes from PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces, while describing the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s strength as well as its capabilities and the technique of SWOT can be used. 3 PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces In order to make a complete analysis of the environment of how the smartphone industry operates we need to evaluate those forces that work in it as well as seeing how the forces share its competitive environment. The forces that are taken into consideration normally are: the technology available technology its development, the economy at large, the competitiveness, government legislation, population demographics, societal values and lifestyles. Even if some of these forces canÃ¢â¬â¢t be directly influenced from the industry is anyway important to evaluate each one of them to fully understand the forces behind the smartphone dynamics. Michael Porter suggested that competitiveness as the force that most likely has the most impact on the industry and it can very much affect the environment where companies move their steps. The competitiveness generates pressure on the industry players and this pressure is captured by PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s forces. PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s framework suggests the following 5 forces as components of competition. The competitions among current industries or countries that carry out their activities in the same area are as follows: 1)The threat from new potential entrants 2)The threat from substitute products 3)The bargaining power stemming from suppliers The bargaining power stemming from buyers Figure 1. The Five Factors or Forces Affecting Competition in an Industry modified from (Porter, 1980). 3.1 The competition among existing industries or countries that carry out their activities in the same area: This force is likely the strongest of the five, the rivalry increases both because of one or more industries foresee the opportunity to increase their market share to the detriment of others. 3.2 Entry Barriers: Under normal conditions, new entrants to a market bring an increment of production capacity and the desire to gain new market share. To determine how serious this threat from new entries, the two things we should think carefully about are as follows: barriers to entry as well as the expected reactions of firms already available in the market. Several types of entry barriers are as follows: 1)Fixed costs: necessary research and development 2)Reputation of incumbent firms: people buy phones from companies they trust 3)Networking: people buy phones that their friends and acquaintances use 4)Switching costs: people buy phones that their friends and acquaintances use 5)Differentiation: limited ability to differentiate from other phones 3.3 Bargaining Power: Smart phone firms possess relatively weak bargaining power. There are some reasons that include the following: 1) Substitutes: many substitutes (as seen below) 2) Elastic demand: Smart phones arenÃ¢â¬â¢t a necessary product; therefore there is an elastic demand for them 3) Information: Customers tend to research capabilities of smart phones because of price as well as high reliance on the product 4) Differentiation: Limited ability to differentiate from other competitors 5) Switching costs: Limited incentives for users to change phone companies 3.4 Substitute Products: A number of substitutes exist for smart phones. The main purpose of smartphones is for mobile access to information. The following are some products that share similar uses: 1)Cellular phones 2)Laptops 3)Organizers or pen and paper 4)Pager In particular, notebooks and cell phones provide sufficient the services that are most needed for mobile access to information. 3.5 Complements For smart phones, any application that works well with the phones can be considered a complement. Google owns a large number of such applications that will be mentioned later. Some of the complements include the following: 1) Email 2) Data manipulation applications (documents) 3) Maps and GPS 4) Organization applications 5) Other internet applications and essentially any software available on phones 6) Music and other media content 7) Computers (in order to install manipulate software on the phone) 8) Products involved in travel and mobility 3.6 Rivalry The smartphone industry is rather competitive. Although there are a few strong competitors, the industry does not support many firms. The following are reasons for this: 1)Differentiation: There is only a limited ability that distinguishes smartphones from a competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s besides the interface. Nonetheless, for smart phones, a considerable differentiation exists between business and home users. This allows for multiple firms to exist, despite the fact that the total number may be still somewhat small. 2)Economy of Scale: There is almost no scalability to create more software, so this doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t force the market toward a small number of firms. 3)Prices: Generally speaking, customers value quality significantly over price when considering buying a phone that they will often use frequently. The reason is that most prices between phones are generally similar, and prices are mostly similar, and prices are insignificant compared to the usefulness and amount of time customers will use the phone. Hence, no room to differentiate for price exists and companies that perceive low quality and low budgets for R D wonÃ¢â¬â¢t survive. 4)Networking: Because there may be cheaper service between the same phones, people purchase the same phones as their friends. 5)Brand Name: Customers care about buying a phone from popular or reliable companies, so as a result, the existence of multiple small firms are limited. As a result, the smart phone industry supports multiple firms due to ability to differentiate between business and home users, but does not support a large number of smaller firms. Then, the smart phone industry is very rivalrous as competitors fight to become one of these few firms. 4 PESTLE Analyses Ã¢â¬Å"PESTLE analysis stands for Ã¢â¬Å"Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal, and Environmental analysisÃ¢â¬ and describes a framework of macro-environmental factors used in the environmental scanning component of strategic management.Ã¢â¬ (Wikipedia 2011). PESTLE analysis-Smartphone Industry Political/Legal current legislation home market future legislation international legislation government policies Economic economy situation economy trends overseas economies and trends market and trade cycles specific industry factors market routes distribution trends Social lifestyle trends demographics consumer attitudes and opinions media views brand, company, technology image consumer buying patterns buying access and trends Technological competing technology development replacement technology/solutions maturity of technology manufacturing maturity information and communications consumer buying technology legislation intellectual property issues global communications 5 SWOT analyses After we have discussed the main features of the external environment where the Smartphone industry is set, in the following second section of the paper, we will carry out a general evaluation of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s internal resource capabilities and competitive advantage versus rivals. By exploring these factors, we can use the analytical technique of SWOT (acronym of Strength, Weakness,Opportunity, and threats. 5.1 Identifying company strengths: HTC Corporation is the Taiwan-based manufacturer for smartphone industry.HTC is most known for its innovation as the company is always expanding upon its product lineÃ¢â¬âintroducing new devices that support specific applications. HTC made its name as the company behind many of the most popular operator-branded devices on the market. It has established unique partnerships with key mobile brands, including the leading five operators in Europe, the top four in theUS, and many fast-growing Asian operators. It has also brought products to market with industry leading OEM partners and, since June 2006, under its own HTC brand. Ã¢â¬Å"HTC is one of the fastest-growing companies in the mobile sector and has achieved remarkable recognition over the past couple of years. Business Week ranked HTC as the second best performing technology company inAsiain 2007 as well as giving the company the number 3 spot in its Global listing in 2006Ã¢â¬ (HTC 2011). 5.2 Identifying company weaknesses: In the world,Taiwanis a small country with a small population. Hence, there is a small market for smartphones which limits the potential for sales. Because of the small market. 5.3 Identifying companyÃ¢â¬â¢s market opportunities: Many OEM factories could brand their products easily. These factories could step out from OEM factories into a brand. BecauseTaiwanis such a small country, in order to meet increasing demand,TaiwanÃ¢â¬â¢s leading smartphone producer HTC likely will outsource its smartphone production. 5.4 Identifying of the threats to a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s profitability: Because of the obvious dominance in the world market place,Chinabeing one of the largest countries in the world, besides theUnited States, definitely poses a large threat toTaiwanÃ¢â¬â¢s smartphone industry. The market place inChinais quite large, which consequently means there is more competition. The population inChinais quite large and because of the large population size, in the market place, there are more consumers which create a bigger demand for supply. Some other threats for theTaiwanmarketplace are other companies manufacturing cheap phones (many similar or substitute products). These cheap phones will affect the marketplace because those consumers who canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford the expensive items will buy these cheaper versions. These cheap phones may offer the same features but the quality might not be as good. TaiwanÃ¢â¬â¢s smartphone industry faces major competition from other companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ worldwide (intense competition from major rivals). Some major competitors forTaiwanare as follows: 1) United States- Apple (iPhone) 2) Japan-Sony Ericcsson 3) Canada- Research In Motion aka RIM (BlackBerry) 4) Finland- Nokia 5) Samsung-Korea 6 Conclusion For a new firm that is considering entering the smartphone industry, the firm will need a lot of capital because intellectual property (IP) for smartphones is extremely important to license or create. Also, capital is necessary because lawsuits over patents are very common, which is probably a reason to avoid entering it altogether. Secondly, the smartphone industry is extremely fast moving; itÃ¢â¬â¢s a combination of computer technology (IT) with communication technology, a whole new industry called by some (ICT). So, as a result, good resources are needed in both areas. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s the reason thatFinlandÃ¢â¬â¢s Nokia is struggling in the market. Nokia never made computers. And the reasons above show why Apple is dominating the market with the iPhone. Apple has the computer know-how; they have tons of money for RD to churn out designs, as well as having a very strong brand name, which is another huge factor. So, without having an established brand, it will be extremely hard to enter the smartphone industry. Acer as well is trying to become competitive in the industry. Acer is trying to leverage its brand (which is only known for PCs so far) and experience in PC design and marketing. A lot of companies are trying to jump on the bandwagon, probably all big PC makers, as well as Google, so it will be quite tough for newcomers to get a share of the market. Every new product will be measured against the iPhone which has set itself as the standard for smartphones, as itÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to compete against it. Q2 In Richard WhittingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s book, Ã¢â¬Å"What is Strategy and does it MatterÃ¢â¬ he discusses four different approaches to strategy. The different approaches are as follows: 1)Classical 2)Evolutionary 3)Processual 4)Systemic When knowing the difference between these theories, businesses can choose which theory matches its needs. These four different strategic approaches are different in terms of their point of view and position. The classical approach focuses on long term goals and objectives and is top-down driven (internal plans). Managers using the classical approach focus on profit-maximization. The classical approach is analytical and its key influences are economics as well as military. The Evolutionary approachÃ¢â¬â¢s rationale is survival, while focusing on external (markets). The process behind the evolutionary approach is Darwinian, while its key influences are economics and biology. The Processual approach is vague while focusing on internal (politics/cognition). The processes behind this approach are bargaining and learning. Psychology is the primary influence for this approach.Systemic approachÃ¢â¬â¢s rationale is local while focusing on external (societies). While the process behind it is social and its key influence is Sociology. By using these four different strategic approaches, businesses are able to compare rational implications of the different theories while in various situations. Management in businesses faces the challenge of implementing as well as evaluating these various strategy-making approaches. While doing so, leaders in management can use these different theories in an effective manner. References HTC. (2011). About HTC-Company Info-HTC Mobile Phones Innovation. Available: http://www.htc.com/us/about. Last accessed 4th May 2011. Collins D. J., Cynthia A. M., (1995), Competing on Resources: Strategy in the 1990s, Harvard Business Rewiw 73 No. 4, pp. 118-28 D?Aveni, Richard A., (1994), Hypercompetition,New York: Free Press Ganapati, Priya . (2011). Strapped to Android, HTC Takes a Dizzying Ride to the Top. Available: http://www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2009/12/android-htc-profile/. Last accessed 4th May 2011. Hundeboll, K., (2003), Personal interwiev, Foreign Trade Director of DLG,Kobenhavn,Denmark Porter M.E., (1980), Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors,New York: Gree Press, Chapter 1. Porter M.E., (1985), Competitive Advantage,New York: Free Press, Chapter 2 Thompson A., Strickland A.J., (2001), Crafting and Executive Strategies, McGraw-Hill Education Ã¢â¬âEurope Wikipedia: PEST analysis [online]. (2011) [Accessed 6th May 2011]. Available from: . Zack M. H., (1999), Developing a Knowledge Strategy,California Management Review 41, No. 3, pp. 125-45. 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Sunday, May 3, 2020
Questions: Task 1. Discuss the organisational purposes of businesses?Task 2. Discuss the nature of the national environment in which businesses operate?Task 3. Discuss the behaviour of organisations in their market environment?Task 4. Be able to assess the significance of the global factors that shape national business activities? Answers: Introduction Every organization has certain will that is, catered to reach the goal of the organization. The goals and the objectives of the organization play a major role in such cases. The base of the organization deals with the idea that is used in the intended purpose of the organization. The difference lies in the example, business type and the primary beneficiary. Commercial interest and the classification may be different from that of the size of the organization. There may be difference eating to the formal and the informal organization (Akinyele, 2010). Task 1 1.1 Purpose of organization The different type of purpose that is, related to the organization structure includes the fact to make profit in business. This is the most dominating logic along with the nonprofit originations like that of the NGO. Apart from this, there are mutual benefit organizations and the other governmental organization. The purpose of the organization depends on the categories that have been, channeled above. In the profit, organization it is the basic idea that the strategies that are, formulated is deals with the profit perspective (Cherunilam, 2010). The profits aspect is the key point in this type of organization. The management and the methods that are applied deals with the perspective of profit. In case of the other organization the most opposite of the profit, organization is that of nonprofit organization. In the nonprofit organization, like the NGOs that work for the betterment of a section of the society or for a purpose that has been set. In this case, the revenue comes from the ones that is collected by the organization. There may be charitable help that is required to run these organizations. However, Bajgoric (2010) argues there are other organizations like trade unions, clubs that; comes under the category of mutual benefit organization. The people who are part of the same can get the benefit from the organization. At the same time, the organization gets the benefit from the people who are part of it like for Chris Jones. The organizations that are the governmental ones may get the benefit like the police, fire brigade and so on. These organizations are primarily the public sector ones that work for the public. The motivation that id derived from the same is that of the government. 1.2 Stakeholders in meeting the organizational objectives The objectives of the organization are, based on the work that is derived by the stakeholders. The internal stakeholders play the most important role in such case. However, without the support of the external stakeholders the objective of the organization cannot be supported. The internal stakeholders are the ones who are the integral part of the organization like that of the owner of the company or organization, the employees of the company, the stakeholders or the unions that may be part of any organization. Dexter et al. (2010) opines it is the essential work of the internal stakeholders to deal with the prospect of the organization. In such case, it is important to note the fact that the decision that is, taken by these stakeholders is directly, related to the profit perspective of the organization. The profit and the channeling of the same are, based on the ideas that may be, taken decisions that are taken from the internal stakeholders. Apart from the internal stakeholders, the external stakeholders also play a dominant role in the profit of the organization. It is crucial to note the fact that the supplies, mortgagers, property owners are also the dominant in the present status of any organization (Griffin. and O'Leary2009). The suppliers are the basic drive for the resources that could be, channeled and the use of the needs. The better the service that is received from the suppliers the better it is to know about the condition of the organization even for people like Chris Jones. The use of the skills and the attachment of the stakeholders to the organization play the vital role in creating the profit and the organizational structure. The objectives and the relationship that is relating to the stakeholders are: Market share Satisfaction of the customers Satisfaction of the employees Stakeholders return Pollution cut Reducing the aspects of waste and others A business plan is directly, related to the work that is assigned to the stakeholders. The responsibility of using a proper management plan is important to deal with the customers. Customers are part of the external stakeholders who do not have a role to play in the business objective of the organization. It is the other parts in the, stakeholders who are responsible to tailor the objectives that are, set the same. It is essential to deal with the stakeholders effectively in any organization reach the desired goals and profit. 1.3 Responsibility of organizations and strategies The responsibility of every company is to serve better along with the goals that have been, set by the companies. Few aspects are to be, taken into consideration by any organization, as they need to work within the legal framework that is to be, taken by any organization (Diaz-Roldan and Monteagudo, 2013). The boundaries are to be, retained with similar aspect. Apart from this, any organization must have the desired level of legitimacy that is important in the running of the company. Next in line is the financial aspect that is to be, taken into account by the company. Recruitment of the company plays a pivotal role in dealing with the service that is, offered by the organization. The employees make it feasible for the organization to reach the desired goal with the right amount professionalism and intelligence. The basic responsibilities and the strategies that may be, attached to the above mentioned is the management process of the organization even for Chris Jones. The monitoring process along with the responsibilities of the board plays the key role in channeling the strategies that is required by the organization (Guy, 2009). The major checklist officials that is to ensured by the top level officials includes the awareness of the responsibilities, the laws that is to be followed by the organization, meetings, monitoring and an effective management process. The interdepartmental relations also play a pivotal role. Hence, the planning requires: Operational plan A tactical plan Strategic plan Contingency planning Task 2 2.1 Economic system and allocation of resources The economic system is the one that helps in meeting all the needs of the people of a country. In such case, it is the society and the economic structure of the state that play a pivotal role. Marlow (2010) put forward the condition of any country is dependent on the elements like that of production process of the company, supply of labor, utilization of the resources available and the method of the utilization of resources. The allocation of the resources has to be the strategy that is to applied by the government in the policies that they set for the organization. The completion of the claims as per the requirement of the resources is the most important aspect that is to be, dealt by the organization. There are different types of economies based on which the resources are allocated. The decision of the government in this case may differ like in case of free economy the intervention of the government is least. In command economies, it is the allocation or the government commands the influence on the economy (Haase and Franco, 2010). In the economies, it is also essential that government take charge of then distribution of the scarce resources. The government is the major cause and the main element in this type of economy. Mixed economies are the ones that deal with both the private sector and the public sector. However, the efficiency of the allocation of the resources differs from that of one country to another or even in organizations like Kensington Textiles Ltd. The reregulation that is, based on the economies is, directly related to the intervention and the extent of the policies that government may use in a particular economy. The resources and the economic system of every co untry are specific and the laws relating to the same may differ (Hanninen et al. 2010). 2.2 Fiscal and monetary policy In case of depending and making the best policies that is effective in dealing with the business there are impact of different policies. Different cycles of economic work deals with the timing and the types of policies that are used. In case of the availability of the resources, the economy maintains the inflation and the deflation of the status. In case of deflation most of the problem that is, faced by any economy is that, there is loss of job along with the fall of business. The situation is contradictory in a state of inflation. In case of fiscal policy, there is more of movement in the plaices and there is relaxation in the income perspective (International Monetary Fund, 2010). The projects that are, created helps in getting the drive that help the economy to create short-term job. Usually the polices are flexible due to which the running of the economic system is also easy. However, in obtaining sustainable long-term growth it is important that the flexibility be made less. Th e monetary policy deals with the changes that are usually incorporated in the short term interests, which might influence the long-term interest rates. The use of the low interests makes it clear that the interest of the business expense is disposable for the customers. The adverse effects of this policy are that the rate of interest can change the stock price. This can affect all the cost and the effect on the business in an organization like Kensington Textiles Ltd. The activities of the economy are dependent on the type of polices that may be used. The short term and long-term investment may be, influenced due to the policies. 2.3 Evaluation of competition policy In the present scenario, competition policy is, aimed to control and to monitor the policies in between different companies. The main objective of the competition policy is that the motive is to promote the aspect of competition in the local market. Robbins and Judge (2010) mention the presence of monopoly or the absence of the same is, determined by the specific policy. The policy entails to know about the different companies that are there in the market and the extent to which these companies can meet the needs of the market. The regulation that may be, related to the attribute of competition is delved in the present policy. The policy also determines the driving factors of the trade between the member states. The basic need of the policy is to determine the extent of the competition and to channel the understanding of the companies in dealing with the demand of the society. There are different magazines or media that makes the analysis of the list of companies who are best in deal ing with the requirements of the customers and to, offer the best service (Mirwoba, 2010). Task 3 3.1 Market structure in determining price The general factor that is dependent in dealing with the pricing is the structure of the market. The factors that are dependent on the market structure are: The total number of organizations that are there and the size that they have The opportunity that the companies have in entering the present market Customers The advertising process of the company The other factors that are responsible includes The products and the type that is delivered varies from one to other Opportunity has to be, based not only on the entry of the firm but also the exit of the other organizations as that is essential for competitive advantage. Based on the above factors there are other market structure that is analyzed, which includes: Competition and the idea of the same Competition concerning monopoly Monopoly Oligopoly Monopoly is the condition that is to deal with the imperfect competition. The seller in the same condition has the control on the market. The goods price in the market has the most in the monopolistic economy (Leal Filho, 2004). The goods that are produced is at par with the perception and the want of the seller. The oligopoly is the system that has few of large concerns, which may have the capability of controlling the market. The market entry of the organization in this type of competition is feasible. In case of monopolistic competition, the companies that are there produce more or less similar products. The competition in such case is high and the market entry in hard. The price control is missing in case of perfect competition. However, any company or organization can enter this type of competition (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2010). 3.2 Market forces in shaping organizational responses Supply and demand are the key factors in any economy. It determines the efficiency of the economy. The price of an item or range of products is largely dependent on the elements of demand and supply. Demand in the market is the need of the product in the market. This is largely dependent on the desires and the want of the customers (Reeves, 2012). Supply is, correlated to the demand as it is, based on the demand that supply is managed. Price is factor that is dependent on the idea of demand and supply. When the demand d of any product is high in the market but the supply is low then in such case the price of the products is escalated. On the contrary, in case of the production or supply being higher and the demand being lower the price of the products is, kept competitive (Koenig and Zeyneloglu, 2010). Like in case of the production of Apple phones if the demand is high in the market it is essential to note that the supply has to be at par with the demand. The price is, fixed according to the supply and the want of the customers. There are number of strategies that are dependent on the company. The management takes the decision in such cases. In order to maintain the equilibrium it is important for organizations like that of Kensington Textiles Ltd. 3.3 Cultural environment in shaping behavior In any international, it is important to deal with the aspects of the trade and to do the same within the boundary that is to be, set by the organization. In case of an organization that produces tobacco, there may be problem with the cultural environment and the environment in which they work. Subba (2010) refer it has been found that the workers in this particular sector have the problem with the condition in which they work. The organizational culture also play pivotal role in dealing with the condition. In textile industry like that of Kensington Textiles Ltd. The condition may vary and may be a bit better than that of the tobacco producing company. Cultural environment and the business aspect is the most important case. The inspiration of the employees is, largely based on the working condition and the communication within the employees (Spaulding, 2010). Task 4 4.1 Importance of international trade in UK Economies are the part of a nation that deals with the effective allocation of resources. Even in case of the international economical scenario, it is important to deal with the elements of important and export. This is integral part of the international trade along with the UK business organizations (Schermerhorn, 2010). Competition is the most important aspect in such cases. In the international trade the aspect that is pivotal is to offer efficient service but in a competitive service. In the business organization of UK, they seek to deliver the best in the service. As UK is, a developed nation that service that is, offered is at par with the modern and the latest technology that is used by the nation. The skills and the knowledge in the economy is ample to deal with the progress of the country. Satisfaction of the customers is the most important attribute that is often looked by the nation (Stewart et al. 2010). 4.2 Global factors on UK business In the perspective of UK, it may be, said that due to the ecological factors and that of the problem in the environment there are certain problems that is faced in the international scenario. It has been, found that the most important aspect that is there is the business organization of UK is that the excess availability of carbon dioxide whereas the less of oxygen. The plans are also getting, affected due to the change in the ecological system. In this regard, York and Venkataraman (2010) opine the oxidants and the antioxidants play a role that may determine the betterment of the flora or fauna. The formation of the integrative system is the most important aspect. The environmental equilibrium is the pivotal aspect that may be analyzed. The global factors that may play a key role may be the International business scenario Environmental factors Political and economic aspects 4.3 Policies in UK business organization The impact of the policies on business organizations of UK may be diverse. It may be, said in this regard that the policies help in reaching the objectives of the organization but within the constraint that may be formed. The decision making process of an organization is also largely dependent on the policies that is set by the organization. The entire administration and decision making is dependent on the similar case (Wohlfarth, 2010). The policies ensure that there are more of positive effects that are generated by them. In such case, the negativities that may rise in the organization of UK can be, channeled through the process of the policies by UK. The policies are also within the constraint of the EU and seek to help the decision making process. The policies help the government along with the humanitarian ground to help in the perspective of business (Vapola et al. 2010). Conclusion It may be, finally said that the work of the organization is within the period that is set by the management. The objectives can be, based on the targets, the sticks of measurement, motivation and the commitment. The stakeholders who could be internal and external play a key role and their role is, based on the objective of the concern. The policies and the type of economy play a key role in the development of the economy. References Akinyele, S. (2010). Market Orientation in a Small Scale Enterprise Environment: Importance of Product-Related Factors. International Business Management, 4(3), pp.162-170. Bajgoric, N. (2010). Server operating environment for business continuance: framework for selection. International Journal of Business Continuity and Risk Management, 1(4), p.317. Cherunilam, F. (2010). Business environment. Mumbai [India]: Himalaya Pub. House. Dexter, L., SaiÃ nchez-Jankowski, M. and Ware, A. (2010). The management of purpose. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers. Diaz-Roldan, C. and Monteagudo-Cuerva, C. (2013). Fiscal policy under alternative monetary policy regimes. BEH, 9(2), pp.1-9. Griffin, R. and O'Leary-Kelly, A. (2009). The dark side of organizational behavior. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Marlow, S. (2010). International Small Business Journal: Invited review article.International Small Business Journal, 28(1), pp.5-5. Guy, F. (2009). The global environment of business. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Haase, H. and Franco, M. (2010). Learning alliances, corporate entrepreneurship and business performance: is there really a linkage?. International Journal of Business Environment, 3(1), p.57. Hanninen, K., Hallikas, J. and Pynnonen, M. (2010). Mobile internet business models in emerging markets. International Journal of Business Environment, 3(4), p.427. International Monetary Fund, (2010). Estimates of the Output Gap in Armenia with Applications to Monetary and Fiscal Policy. IMF Working Papers, 10(197), p.1. Koenig, G. and Zeyneloglu, I. (2010). MONETARY AND FISCAL POLICY EFFICIENCY AND COORDINATION IN A MULTI-SECTOR OPEN-ECONOMY GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM MODEL. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 57(4), pp.473-492. Kreitner, R. and Kinicki, A. (2010). Organizational behavior. Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Leal Filho, W. (2004). Environment 2010. [Bradford, England]: Emerald Group Pub. Mirwoba, S. (2010). Rethinking ethical issues in global business environment. KCAJBM, 2(2). Reeves, D. (2012). The daily disciplines of leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Robbins, S. and Judge, T. (2010). Essentials of organizational behavior. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall. Schermerhorn, J. (2010). Organizational behavior. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Spaulding, T. (2010). It's not just who you know. New York: Broadway Books. Stewart, A., Lumpkin, G. and Katz, J. (2010). Entrepreneurship and family business. Bingley: Emerald. Subba Rao, P. (2010). International business environment. Mumbai [India]: Himalaya Pub. House. Vapola, T., Paukku, M. and Gabrielsson, M. (2010). Portfolio management of strategic alliances: An international business perspective. International Business Review, 19(3), pp.247-260. Wohlfarth, T. (2010). Play with purpose. PsycCRITIQUES, 55(24). York, J. and Venkataraman, S. (2010). The entrepreneurenvironment nexus: Uncertainty, innovation, and allocation. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(5), pp.449-463.
Friday, March 27, 2020
Investment in Vietnam Essay GUIDEBOOK ON BUSINESS AND INVESTMENT IN VIETNAM BERLIN, 2011 FOREWORD Over the past two decades, Viet NamÃ¢â¬â¢s economy has bee n developing rapidly owing to its Ã¢â¬Å"Doi moiÃ¢â¬ (Renovation) policy and activeness to integrate itself into the global economy. W ith its enormous efforts and determination, and effective cooperation with international partners and friends worldwide, Viet Nam is taking firm steps towards industrialization and modernization. With a stable political environment and great economic potentials, Viet Nam is an attractive destination for doing business and investment. The Government of Viet Nam has been ceaselessly endeavoring to improve the investment climate with the aim at creating an increasingly business-friendly environment in Viet Nam. Germany is the biggest economic partner of Viet Nam in Europe. The economic cooperation between the two countries has been fruitfully burgeoning. In an effort to further strengthen the economic cooperation between Viet Nam and Germany, t he Embassy of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam in coordination with the relevant ministries of Viet Nam to publish the Guidebook on Business and Investment of Viet Nam, which is expected to provide German businesses with an overview of the Viet NamÃ¢â¬â¢s economy and its business and investment climate. We are confident that German businesses can find helpful information and guidelines on investment and doing business in Viet Nam from the Guidebook, and thereby have a deeper understanding of the Viet NamÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, a dynamically emerging and reliable destination for international investment flows. We deeply thank the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Planning and Investment of Viet Nam for their kind support and assistance. We would like to express our sincere thanks to Dr. We will write a custom essay sample on Investment in Vietnam specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Investment in Vietnam specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Investment in Vietnam specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Andreas Stoffers, Board Member of German Business Association Vietnam and Member Executive Committee Euroean Chamber of Commerce Vietman for reviewing this book. W e also heartedly thank Marktforschung und Kommunikation GmbH for her great cooperation and excellent coordination in publishing the Guidebook. Dr. Do Hoa Binh Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador of the S. R. Viet Nam to the Federal Republic of Germany 2 ABBREVIATION ASEAN BCC BOM BOT BT BTO CEPT CIT CPC DOLISA DPI EIAR EL EPC EPZ EU EZ FIC FOB GDP HTZ IL IZ JVC LTT LUR LURC MFN MOIT MOLISA MONRE MOST MPI NOIP ODA PCT PIT PPP RO SBV TTC USD VAT VCAD VND W TO Association of Southeast Asian Nations Business co-operation contract Board of Management of IZs, EPZs, HTZs and EZs Build-operate-transfer (including its derivative forms, BTO and BT) Build-transfer Build-transfer-operate Common Effective Preferential Tariff Scheme Corporate income tax Civil Proceedings Code Provincial Department of Labour, War Invalids and Social Affairs Provincial Department of Planning and Investment Environmental impact assessment report Enterprise Law Environment protection commitment Export processing zone European Union Economic zone Foreign-invested company Free on board Gross Domestic Product High-tech zone Investment Law Industrial zone Joint venture company Law on Technology Transfer Land use rights Certificate of land use rights Most Favoured Nation Ministry of Industry and Trade Ministry of Labour, War Invalids and Social Affairs Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Ministry of Science and Technology Ministry of Planning and Investment National Office of Intellectual Property Official development assistance Patent Cooperation Treaty Personal income tax Public Private Partnership Representative Office State Bank of Vietnam Technology transfer contract United States of America dollar Value-added tax Vietnam Competition Administration Department Vietnamese Dong W orld Trade Organisation 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD . 2 VIETNAM AT A GLANCE .. 5 I: KEY FACTS .. 5 II: POLITICAL SYSTEM III: ECONOMY . 6 IV: INFRASTRUCTURE .. 13 V: VIETNAM- GERMANY ECONOMIC RELATIONSHIP.. 21 LEGAL GUIDE FOR INVESTING AND DOING BUSINESS IN VIETNAM .. 24 I: INVESTMENT REGULATIONS . 24 II: TRADE REGULATIONS 30 III: TAXATION 35 IV: CUSTOMS REGULATIONS 42 V: LAND LAW .. 44 VI: FOREIGN EXCHANGE AND LOANS .. 9 VII: EMPLOYMENT .. 52 VIII: COMPETITION LAW 58 IX: ENVIRONMENT 62 X: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY .. 64 XI: TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER 1 XII: DISPUTE RESOLUTION .. 73 BUSINESS TRAVEL GUIDE TO VIETNAM . 77 APPENDICES APPENDIX 1: LIST OF SECTORS ENTITLED TO INVESTMENT INCENTIVES .. 80 APPENDIX 2: LIST OF GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS OF INVESTMENT INCENTIVES . 84 APPENDIX 3: USEFUL CONTACTS AND ADDRESSES IN VIETNAM .. 87 4 VIETNAM AT A GLANCE I: KEY FACTS ? Official name: The Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Capital: Hanoi. ? Largest city: Ho Chi Minh City. ? Administrative subdivisions: 58 provinces and 5 municipalities (Hanoi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Ho Chi Minh and Can Tho). ? Official language: Vietnamese. ? Location: In the center of Southeast Asia, neighboring on China to the north, Laos and Cambodia to the west, and the East Sea and Pacific Ocean to the East and South. ? Area: 331,690 km2. ? Coast line: 3,260 km. ? Climate: tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (mid May to mid-September) and warm, dry season (mid-October to mid-March). Population (2010): 86. 9 million, by area (urban: 30% and rural: 70%) and by age (less than 15 years old: 24. 7%, 15 -64 years old: 68. 5% and more than 65 years old: 6. 8%). ? Population density: 262 people/km2. ? Literacy: 93. 7%. ? Natural resource: Energy resources (oil, gas, coal, hydropower and wind power); minerals (bauxite, iron ore, lead, gold, precious stones, tin, chromate, anthracite, construction materials, granite, marble, clay, white sand and graphite); sea and tropical forestry resources and agricultural potential. ? Currency: Vietnamese Dong (VND). ? Exchange rate (April 2011): 1 USD = 20,725 VND. ? GDP (2010): 104. 7 billion USD. ? GDP per capita (2010): 1,204 USD. ? GDP real growth rate (2010): 6. 78%. ? GDP by sector (2010): Agriculture (20. 6%), Industry (41. 1%) and Service (38. 3%). ? Exports: Crude oil, garments, shoes, marine products, electronic products and components, funitures, rice, coffee, rubber, tea, pepper. ? Major export markets: USA, Japan, China, Australia, Singapore, Germany, South Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Netherland. ? Imports: Machinery equipment, petroleum products, pharmaceuticals, fertilizer, steel products, metal, textile, garment and shoe inputs, vehicles. 5 ? II: Major import markets: China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, USA, Malaysia, India, Germany. POLITICAL SYSTEM The current Constitution was adopted in 1992 and amended in 2001. It clearly indicates that the State is Ã¢â¬Å"of the people, by the people and for the peopleÃ¢â¬ . The people access the State power through the National Assembly and Peoples Councils, which are composed of elected representatives who represent the peoples will and aspirations. The Constitution endows all citizens, men and women alike, with equal rights in all political, economic, cultural and social spheres as well as in family affairs, the right to and freedom of belief and religion and the right to choose and practice a religion, the right to and freedom of movement and residence in Vietnam, and the right to go abroad and return home as stipulated by laws. The National Assembly is the highest representative body of the people, endowed with the highest State power of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. It governs constitutional and legislative rights, decides fundamental domestic and foreign policies, socioeconomic tasks, and national defence and security issues, etc. It exercises the right to supreme supervision of all activities of the State. The State President is the Head of State, elected by the National Assembly from among its deputies to represent the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in domestic and foreign affairs. The term of office of the President is the same as that of the Chairman of the National Assembly. The Government is the executive body of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. It has the same term of office as the National Assembly and administers the implementation of State affairs in the fields of politics, economics, culture, society, national defence and security and foreign relations. The government is headed by the Prime Minister and comprises Deputy Prime Ministers, Ministers and other government members. The Supreme Peoples Court is the judicial body of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. It supervises and directs the judicial work of local Peoples Courts, Military Tribunals, Special Tribunals and other tribunals, unless otherwise prescribed by the National Assembly at the establishment of such Tribunals. The Supreme Peoples Procuracy oversees the enforcement of the law and exercises the right to prosecution, and ensures serious and uniform implementation of the law. III: ECONOMY Since the Doi moi (reforms) were introduced in the mid-1980s, Vietnamese economy has changed rapidly. Replacing the old centrally-planned economy, Vietnam has shifted to a new economic structure namely a socialist-oriented market economy, and has gained significant success. Today the aim of Vietnam is to become a basically industrialized country by 2020. 6 Overall achievements Vietnam embarked on Doi moi in 1986 and the country has seen many dramatic changes since. Over the last decade it has recorded an average GDP growth rate of 7. 3 percent per annum, ranking it second in the region after China. Its economy suffered from the 2008-09 economic crisis but recovered rapidly, with GDP growth rate of 6. 78 percent in 2010. ADB forecasts that the economy of Vietnam will increase by 6. 1 and 6. 7 percent in 2011 and 2012 respectively. Vietnam already became a lower middle income country with its GDP per capita of 1,204 USD in 2010. To a large extent, Vietnam has successfully transformed from a centrally-planned economy with heavy bureaucracy and subsidies to a socialist -oriented market economy characterized by strong dynamism and rapidly growing entrepreneurship. The countrys economy has integrated deeply into the global and regional economies, bringing about a sharp rise in trade volumes as well as an influx of foreign investment. The economy is well on the way to being a multi-sector model operating according to market mechanisms. The private sector has enjoyed very favourable conditions created by the Enterprise Law of 2000, which institutionalizes the freedom of all individuals to conduct business in areas not prohibited by law and removes a large number of administrative obstacles that hampered enterprises. With a view to raising the efficiency of the state -owned sector, the government has adopted assertive policy measures to reorganize the sector through equitization. As a result, more than 3,970 state-owned enterprises were equitized by the end of 2010. GDP of Vietnam, 2000-2010 120 9. 0 8. 0 7. 0 80 6. 0 5. 0 60 4. 0 40 3. 0 2. 0 20 1. 0 0 0. 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Year GDP GDP growth rate Source: General Statistics Office 7 GDP growth rate (%) GDP (billion USD) 100 Progress in particular sectors As Vietnams GDP continuously increases the countrys economic structure has also seen notable changes. From 1990 to 2010 the share of the agriculture sector reduced from 38. 7 percent to 20. percent, while that of industry and construction increased from 22. 7 percent in 1990 to 41. 1 percent in 2010. The service sector remained relatively constant: 38. 6 percent in 1990 and 38. 3 percent in 2010. Agriculture still plays a critical role in Vietnams socio-economic life since it generates about 57 percent of total employment and makes important contribution to the expansion of the countrys foreign trade. Vietnam are among the leading countries in terms of agricultural exports such as rice, coffee, cashew nuts and aqua-products, etc. Industry continues to grow rapidly in terms of gross output, at an average rate of 10-15 percent per annum. Besides state enterprises, foreign-invested and the private enterprises play an increasingly important role in industrial development and exports. Services are growing at an average rate of 7-8 percent. In 2010 the value added of service sector grew 7. 52 percent with good performances being recorded in the trade, finance, and hotels and restaurant sub-sectors as consumption and tourism remained buoyant. Industry and services continue to increase their sha re in the economy. This reflects market oriented reforms, a gradual reduction in barriers to competition and to private sector development, and improvements in physical infrastructure. Greater diversification in industrial production and services lays the foundation for further sustained growth in output and employment. VA growth rate by sector of Vietnam, 2000-2010 12. 0 10. 0 Percent 8. 0 6. 0 4. 0 2. 0 0. 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Year Agriculture Industry Source: General Statistics Office 8 Service International economic integration Vietnam has made major steps forward in its commitments to regional and international economic integration. Following the introduction of Doi moi it signed an economic and trade cooperation agreement with the EU in 1995, joined ASEAN in 1995, adhered to CEPT/AFTA in 1996 and became an APEC member in 1998. The Bilateral Trade Agreement (BTA) with the United States was signed in 2000, which resulted in a dramatic increase in the trade volume between the two countries. Vietnam became the 150th member of the World Trade Organization on January 11, 2007. Vietnams commitments in the WTO increase market access for exports of goods and services of WTOs members and establish greater transparency in regulatory trade practices as well as a more level playing field between Vietnamese and foreign companies. Vietnam undertook commitments on goods (tariffs, quotas and ceilings on agricultural subsidies) and services (provisions of access to foreign service providers and related conditions), and to implement agreements on intellectual property (TRIPS), investment measures (TRIMS), customs valuation, technical barriers to trade, sanitary nd phytosanitary measures, import licensing provisions, anti-dumping and countervailing measures, and rules of origin. At present, Viet Nam has established diplomatic relations with 172 countries and signed 55 bilateral investment agreements and 58 double taxation agreements with countries and territories including Germany. It has economic and trading relations with about 165 countries and territories. Vietnam h olds membership in 63 international organizations and over 650 non-governmental organizations. The policy of Ã¢â¬Å"multi-lateralization and diversificationÃ¢â¬ in international relations has helped Vietnam to integrate more deeply into the global and regional economies and increase trade and investment ties with nations all over the world. More importantly, Vietnam has improved its enable business friendly environment over time. World Bank recognized that Vietnam is one of the 10 most-improved economies in ease of doing business in 2010. Currently, its ranking is 78 and even higher than other Asia countries such as Indonesia, Philippines, China, India. VietnamÃ¢â¬â¢s rankings according to various indices Index 2011-2010 rank 2010-2009 rank World BankÃ¢â¬â¢s Ease of doing business 78/183 88/183 World Economic Forums Global competitiveness index 59/139 75/133 12/top 20 12/top 25 (*) ATKEARNEY FDI confidence index Note (*) data for 2007 9 International trade Total export volume of Vietnam increased by 18 percent per year on average in the last decade and its import volume also did so by 19. 2 percent per year. In 2010 its total trade volume reached $155. 6 billion ($71. 6 billion of export and $84 billion of import), equal to 149 percent of its GDP. Both the composition and quality of exports have improved significantly. The proportion of industrial products has risen considerably. The five biggest export items include oil, textiles, footwear, seafood and wood products. Vietnam is in the early stage of the industrialisation and modernisation process and receives a large inflow of FDI therefore it relies largely on the imp orted equipment and materials. Trade relations with foreign countries, especially other countries in the region, have expanded over time. The biggest trading partners of Viet Nam include China, America, ASEAN, EU, Japan and South Korea. International trade of Vietnam, 2000-2010 160 70 140 60 120 50 100 40 80 30 60 20 40 10 20 0 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Year Export Import Trade in goods as % GDP Source: General Statistics Office 10 Trade in goods as % GDP (percent) 180 80 Trade (billion US$) 90 Top 10 export and import items of Vietnam, 2010 Garment Machinery equipment Footwear Steel products Seafood Petroleum products Crude oil Fabric Electronic products Electronic products Furniture Vehicles Rice Platics Machinery equipment Garment and shoe inputs Precious stone metals Metals Rubber Animal feed 0. 0 5. 0 10. 0 15. 0 0. 0 5. 0 10. 0 15. 0 Import volume (billion USD) Export volume (billion USD) Export item Import item Source: General Statistics Office Foreign direct investment Since the introduction of the Law on Foreign Investment in 1987, by the end of 2010, 12,236 foreign investment projects were licensed with total registered capital of $193. 4 billion and total disbursed capital of over $61 billion. The investors from 92 countries and territories have committed investments in Viet Nam. Most of them are from Asia, Europe and America. Taiwan, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Japan and Malaysia and are the top five countries and territories investing in Vietnam. The next five countries and territories are British Virgin Islands, America, Hongkong, Cayman Islands and Thailand. These Ã¢â¬Å"top tenÃ¢â¬ countries and territories account for over three quarters of the total licensed projects and foreign registered capital in Viet Nam. Since 1996 there has been a tendency towards investment in producing goods for export, infrastructure construction, producing import substitutes and in labour intensive industries. There are more than 8,327 projects in the manufacturing and processing, real estate and construction industries with a total capital of about US$153,5 billion, accounting for nearly 80% of the registered capital. While there are foreign invested projects in all provinces and cities in Viet Nam, most investment has been in the key economic areas in the South including Ho Chi Minh City, Dong Nai, Binh Duong, Ba Ria, Vung Tau, and in the North including Hanoi, Hai Duong, Hai Phong and Quang Ninh. The foreign invested sector has increased rapidly, gradually asserting itself as a dynamic component of the economy, and has made an important contribution to enhancing the competitiveness and efficiency of the economy. In 20 10, the foreign invested sector has accounted for 21. 5% of the countrys total investment, contributed 18. percent to GDP, 54. 2 percent to export volume (crude oil included), 44. 4 percent to industrial gross output and employed 1. 6 million persons. 11 FDI Inflow of Vietnam, 2000-2010 Project number Registered capital Service, 10. 7% Telecom. transportation 4. 1% Service, 19. 2% Processing manufacturing 48. 7% Agriculture, 1. 6% Processing manufacturing 59. 8% Agriculture 3. 9 % Telecom. transportation 7. 7% Real estate construction 30. 8% Power, water, gas, 2. 5% Mining, 1. 5% Real estate construction 8. 4% Power, water, gas, 0. 5% Mining, 0. 6% Source: Ministry of Planning and Investment FDI of Vietnam by sector, 2010 600 60 1400 1200 50 1000 40 800 30 600 20 400 10 200 0 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Year Disbursement Total investment Note: Accumulated inflow of FDI by the end of 2010 Source: Ministry of Planning and Investment 12 No. of project 1800 70 FDI inflow (billion US$) 80 Top 10 destinations and investors of Vietnam, 2010 Top 10 FDI receiving provinces Top 10 investing countries and territories Ho Chi Minh City Chinese Taipei Ba Ria Vung Tau Korea Republic Ha Noi Singapore Dong Nai Japan Binh Duong Malaysia Ha Tinh British Virgin Islands Phu Yen America Thanh Hoa Hong Kong Hai Phong Cayman Islands Quang Nam Thailand 0. 0 10. 0 20. 0 30. 0 Total registered investment (billion USD) 0. 0 5. 0 10. 0 15. 0 20. 0 25. 0 Total registered investment (billion USD) Note: Accumulated inflow of FDI by the end of 2010 Source: Ministry of Planning and Investment IV: INFRASTRUCTURE ? Road network: ? 171,392 km country-wide. 2 North-South pivot routes: (i) the 1A National Highway of 2,260km in length from Lang Son to Ca Mau and (ii) the Ho Chi Minh Highway of 3,167km in length from Cao Bang to Ca Mau. Railway network: ? Total length of 2,632 km. 278 stations country-wide. Hanoi Ã¢â¬â Ho Chi Minh City line: 1,726 km (it takes 29. hours for express train). Linked to China railways in two directions, one from Lao Cai province to Yunnan province and one from Lang Son province to Kwangsi province of China. Planned to construct the railway lines connecting with Laos and Cambodia. Inland waterway: More than 2,300 rivers and canals with total length of 198,000 km. Inland waterway system of 35 ,386 km. 13 ? Sea ports: ? Vietnam has 3,260km coastline, a strategic position close to international shipping routes and favored natural conditions of foundation, sea depth, current, tidal, sedimentation and channels for developing seaport business. 7 national level sea ports, 23 provincial level sea ports and 9 offshore oil and gas sea ports. Current major important ports include Cai Lan and Hai Phong in the North, Da Nang and Quy Nhon in the Centre and Sai Gon and Cai Mep in the South. Airports: ? 8 international airports: Cam Ranh (Nha Trang), Cat Bi (Hai Phong), Da Nang (Da Nang), Lien Khuong (Lam Dong), Noi Bai (Ha Noi), Phu Bai (Hue), Tra Noc (Can Tho), Tan Son Nhat (Ho Chi Minh City). In 2010, Tan Son Nhat Airport received 15. 5 million passergers and Noi Bai airport did 9. 5 million passengers. 14 domestic airports: Buon Ma Thuot (Dac Lac), Ca Mau (Ca Mau), Chu Lai (Quang Nam), Co Ong (Ba Ria Vung Tau), Dien Bien Phu (Dien Bien Phu), Dong Tac (Phu Yen), Dong Hoi (Quang Binh), Gia Lam (Ha Noi), Na San (Son La), Pleiku (Gia Lai), Phu Cat (Binh Dinh), Phu Quoc (Kien Giang), Rach Gia (Kien Giang), Vinh (Nghe An). Business development zones: ? 3 high-tech zones (Hoa Lac, Da Nang and Ho Chi Minh City) with total area of 3,509 ha of land. ? 260 industrial zones and export processing zones with total area of 71,394 ha of land. 15 economic zones located along sea coast with total area of 638,633 ha of land. Energy: Electricity output reached 92. 7 billion kWh. Crude oil and gas exploited 23 million ton. Coal exploited 44 million ton. Telecommunication: 26. 8 million Internet users. 153. 7 million mobile subscriptions. 16. 4 million fixed phone subscriptions. 14 15 Vietnam rail network 16 National seaports of Vietnam No. Seaport Province Current capacity of ship (DWT) 1 Cam Pha Quang Ninh 50,000 2 Hon Gai Quang Ninh 40,000 3 Hai Phong Hai Phong 20,000 4 Nghi Son Thanh Hoa 20,000 5 Cua Lo Nghe An 10,000 6 Vung Ang Ha Tinh 30,000 7 Chan May Thua Thien Hue 30,000 8 Da Nang Da Nang 30,000 9 Dung Quat Quang Ngai 0,000 10 Quy Nhon Binh Dinh 30,000 11 Van Phong Khanh Hoa 50,000 12 Nha Trang Khanh Hoa 20,000 13 Ba Ngoi Khanh Hoa 30,000 14 Ho Chi Minh City Ho Chi Minh City 30,000 15 Vung Tau Ba Ria Vung Tau 50,000 16 Dong Nai Dong Nai 20,000 17 Can Tho Can Tho 10,000 Source: Decision 2190/QD-TTg dated 24/12/2009 17 Number and size of IPs and EPZs in Vietnam 300 71,394 70,000 60,000 40,000 150 26,971 260 100 183 11,830 50 50,000 43,687 200 300 1 2,370 12 30,000 20,000 130 10,000 65 0 1991 1995 2000 2005 2007 Year Number of IPs Size (ha) Source: Ministry of Planning and Investment 18 2010 Size of IPs (ha) Number of IPs 250 Economic zones of Vietnam 19 SWOT Analysis of Vietnam Strengths Weaknesses ? One of fastest growing economies ? Few skilled professionals in Asia with average GDP growth of available; 7. 2% per year over the last decade; ? High bureaucratic barriers; ? Stable political and social security; ? Weak infrastructure (power, ? Abundance of human resources transportation); (labour force of 46. 2 million people; ? Underdeveloped supporting young, motivated and educated industries. workforce; 60% of population under 35 years old); ? Competitive business and production costs (cost labor, industrial land rent, energy cost, elephone cost, marine transportation, taxation); ? Available mineral and natural resources (coal, oil gas, iron ore, bauxite, rare earth,.. ); ? Central location in South East Asia, long distance coast. Opportunities Threats ? Global integration (ASEAN, APEC, WTO membership); one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most open economies; ? High inflation; ? High trade deficit; ? Devaluation of VND; ? Higher demand for consumer goods and capital goods with better ? Banking and finance sector in infant stage; quality because of being a lower middle income country, aiming at ? Low national reserves. an industrialized country and ncreasing urban population; ? Export oriented and labour intensive industries; ? Infrastruture (road, railway, seaport, airport, power) projects funded by international donors or foreign investors. 20 V: VIETNAM- GERMANY ECONOMIC RELATIONSHIP Trade Germany is the biggest trade partner of Vietnam in Europe. In 2010, despite the global economic downturn, bilateral trade reached nearly USD 6 billion, a substantial increase over the previous year. Total export value of Vietnam to Germany reached nearly USD 4 billion, accounting for 19% of total VietnamÃ¢â¬â¢s export to the EU while its import value from German amounted to USD 2 billion. VietnamÃ¢â¬â¢s main export items to Germany are garments, footwear, coffees, furnitures, see foods, leather and leather apparel, office machinery, iron, metal products, articles of plastics, ceramic products, crude rubber. Germany is the second-largest market worldwide for robusta coffee and black pepper of Vietnam. Main import items from Germany to Vietnam include: machines (in mining, construction and civil engineering, textile, food and beverage,Ã¢â¬ ¦), aircraft, units for electricity generation nd distribution, passenger cars, chemical products, pharmaceutical products, measurement, control and regulation technology products, industrial plants, plastics, lifting and handling equipment, medical equipment and orthopedic appliances, engines, iron, metal products, elec tronic componentsÃ¢â¬ ¦ After WTO accession, Vietnam is becoming an emerging and lucrative market in Asia. As Vietnam is accelerating its industrialization process to become an Ã¢â¬Å"industrialized countryÃ¢â¬ by 2020, the trend towards sophisticated production facilities is evident and it is likely to result in increased demand for hi -tech machinery made in Germany. Investment There have been over 230 German companies operating and investing in Vietnam, including many GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s leading groups such as Siemens, Deutsche Bank, Mercedes, Metro, Bosch etc. By the end of April 2011, German companies have invested in 163 projects with registered capital of USD 825 million in Vietnam. Three fourths of total investment projects and two thirds of investment capital of Germany mainly concentrate in manufacturing, processing, technique services, information and communication technology, banking and finance services. Although German investment projects have been located in 26 locatio ns in Vietnam, most of them have been implemented in Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi, Binh Duong and Dong Nai. In the upcoming time, the active implementation of mega infrastructure development and energy projects partially funded by German ODA such as the metro line No. 2 Ben Thanh An Suong in Ho Chi Minh City (with length of 11 km and total investment capital of USD 1. 25 billion), O Mon IV thermo power, Phu Lac wind power, Vietnamese Green Line, will have positive impacts on promoting German investment flow into Vietnam. German foreign trade and investment promotion is well positioned in Viet Nam. German companies and investors can access to supports and advices from AHK Vietnam, German Business Association (GBA), a correspondent of Germany Trade and Invest (GTAI) in Vietnam. 21 Development cooperation Vietnam is an important partner of Germany in development cooperation. As one of the biggest donors among the EU members, Germany has provided Vietnam with more than EUR 1 billion in ODA since 1990. During 2011 Ã¢â¬â 2012, Germany committed nearly EUR 300 million for Vietnam. This is a clear evidence for strong support by Germany to the development of Vietnam. German-Vietnamese development cooperation focuses on the three priority areas: (i) Sustainable economic development and vocational training; (ii) Environmental policy, conservation and sustainable use of natural resources; (iii) Health. German development cooperation has been utilizing effectively and contributing positively to socio-economic development of Vietnam, especially in vocational training, human resource development, infrastructure, clean energy source. During the visit of German Chancellor Dr. Angela Merkel to Viet Nam in October 2011, Hanoi Declaration was signed by Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung
Friday, March 6, 2020
Exorcist essays Fear is one of mans most primal instincts; the task of evoking that instinct in a film is not an easy one. In order for a movie scare the people watching it, there has to be a sense of realism in the film, the sets characters and plot have to be believable. This real world on camera is not easily created it involves the sets, and the camera work; it involves the realism of the costumes, and the special effects surrounding the entire film. The horror genre is one of the toughest types of films to create, in horror it is not the extreme special effects that the big action movies possess, but instead a horror movie is all about the sets and costumes. To create a good horror movie you need to make the person watching the film believe it could happen to them, they need to think that they are in the film. To the uneducated film connoisseur the director gets all of the credit for a good film, but it is not just the director that is responsible for a good, or great film. To have a good or great film you need not only the director, but also the photography director, and last but not least the production designer. Although the director may get all the credit in a horror movie like any other movie the director of photography is a very integral part to the film. All of the shots and camera angles are his responsibility. All of the shots used to evoke fear in the viewer are carefully planned and prepared. IF the shots are off even just a little, it could be the difference from a scary part, to that of a terrifying part. The production designer as well as the director of photography is an extremely important role in a horror film. The production director is responsible for all of the people that make the costumes and the sets of the film. The production designer is responsible for the people that create the make up and most times blood and gore involved in a horror film. If the props and sets are not realistic the ...
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Public Health and Social Care - Essay Example This discussion stressesÃ health inequalities are the differences that exist in the health status between different socioeconomic groups. In most countries, differences in health are observed across the population. Variations in genetics and constitution ensure that there is a variation in the health of individuals. Age groups also play a key role in determining the prevalence of ill health. Older people tend to fall sick more often as compared to younger people due to the ageing process .According to the report findings obesity is a condition associated with being overweight and having a lot of body fat. This condition affects people across all ages and may be caused by either factors related to heredity and variation in human genetics or the lifestyle one chooses to live. Most cases of obesity in Hammersmith and Fulham are due to the kind of lifestyle. Most people living in the Borough are economically very stable, and this translates to the kind of lifestyle they live. According to National Obesity Observatory, six out of ten men, and five out of every ten women living in Hammersmith are either overweight or obese. The statistics further indicate that the prevalence of obesity among the adults increased from fifteen percent in 1993 to twenty-six percent in 2010. Sixty-seven percent of men and fifty-eight percent of women were overweight in 2010.Ã Children in the highest income quintiles have the least risk of suffering obesity while the proportion of obesity in children is highest in the lowest quintiles.